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  • Webbed Toes

    Webbed toes (also known as syndactyly) is a rare condition seen in approximately one in 2,000 births. Those with this condition have two or more toes that are partially or fully joined by a flexible skin bridge.  Syndactyly most commonly affects the second and third toes, but it can occur between

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  • Varicose Veins

    Varicose veins are usually due to improperly functioning valves within the veins. The veins typically appear prominent or look "raised."  The condition can cause swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet. The skin may become discolored due to leakage of blood into the surrounding tissues, and ulcers may

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  • Turf Toe

    What is Turf Toe? Turf toe is a sprain of the big toe joint resulting from injury during sports activities. The injury usually results from excessive upward bending of the big toe joint. The condition can be caused from either jamming the toe, or repetitive injury when pushing off repeatedly when running

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  • Toe Walking

    Toe walking, a condition in which a person walks on the toes or ball of the foot, is most often seen in young children learning to walk. A child who does not outgrow toe walking in early childhood should be evaluated by a foot and ankle surgeon. Toe walking may be idiopathic (habitual) or it can be caused

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  • Tired Feet

    "Tired feet" are not a medical condition, but are a common complaint related to various medical conditions. Abnormal foot structure (flatfoot or high arched foot) can overburden the foot, resulting in muscle fatigue. Obesity, improper footwear, pregnancy, leg swelling, increased activity level, or compensation

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  • Tingly Feet

    “Tingly feet" can be a sign of nerve loss. The nerves in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve can cause a tingling sensation in the feet. Any sensation that is out of the ordinary can be an early sign of neurologic or vascular problems. In addition to tingling,

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  • Talar Dome Lesion

    What is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom of the tibia (shin) bone and the top of the talus (ankle) bone. The top of the talus is dome-shaped and is completely covered with cartilage—a tough, rubbery tissue that enables the ankle to move smoothly. A talar dome lesion is

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  • Tailor's Bunion

    What Is a Tailor’s Bunion? Tailor’s bunion, also called a bunionette, is a prominence of the fifth metatarsal bone at the base of the little toe. The metatarsals are the five long bones of the foot. The prominence that characterizes a tailor’s bunion occurs at the metatarsal “head,” located

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  • Synovitis

    Synovitis is inflammation of the tissues that line a joint. It is commonly associated with specific diseases such as arthritis or gout, but may also be the result of overuse or trauma. Symptoms of synovitis may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain with joint motion. Evaluation by a foot and

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  • Swollen Feet

    Swelling of the feet may be due to many factors, including trauma, infection, tumor, varicose veins, improper function of the lymphatic system, poor circulation, hypertension, and congestive heart failure, to name a few.  The foot and ankle surgeon will recommend treatment based on examination and diagnosis

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  • Shin Splints

    “Shin splints” is a term to describe pain and swelling in the front of the lower legs. The pain usually appears after and is aggravated by repetitive activities such as running or walking. Contributing causes are flat feet, calf tightness, improper training techniques, worn out or improper shoes/sneakers,

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  • Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    What is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a bone embedded in a tendon. Sesamoids are found in several joints in the body. In the normal foot, the sesamoids are two pea-shaped bones located in the ball of the foot, beneath the big toe joint.   Acting as a pulley for tendons, the sesamoids help the big

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  • Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Foot and Ankle

    What is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease in which certain cells of the immune system malfunction and attack healthy joints. RA causes inflammation in the lining (synovium) of joints, most often the joints of the hands and feet. The signs of inflammation can include pain,

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  • Restless Legs

    An uncontrolled urge to move one’s legs is referred to as "restless legs." This can happen while trying to sleep, while traveling, or any time the legs are at rest. There is no known test to diagnose the problem; instead, the foot and ankle surgeon considers the individual’s history to determine

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  • R.I.C.E Protocol

    Rest: Stay off the injured (foot/ankle). Walking may cause further injury. Ice: Apply an ice pack to the injured area, placing a thin towel between the ice and the skin. Use ice for 20 minutes and then wait at least 40 minutes before icing again. Compression: An elastic wrap should be used to control

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  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

    What Is PTTD?The posterior tibial tendon serves as one of the major supporting structures of the foot, helping it to function while walking. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a condition caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch. This results in flattening

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  • Pigeon-toes

    Pigeon toes (intoeing) is a condition in which the feet point inward when walking. It is commonly seen in children and may resolve in very early childhood with no treatment or intervention.  The child should be examined by a foot and ankle surgeon if the intoeing is causing significant tripping, difficulty

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  • Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    What Are the Peroneal Tendons? A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The two peroneal tendons in the foot run side-by-side behind the outer ankle bone. One peroneal tendon attaches to the outer part of the midfoot, while the other tendon runs under the foot and attaches near

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  • Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis, which means “porous bone,” is a condition in which bones become weak and thin due to lack of calcium. People with osteoporosis have an increased risk of bone fractures (breaks).  Osteoporosis is often called the “silent disease” because many people do not realize they have it.

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  • Osteopenia

    Osteoporosis, which means “porous bone,” is a condition in which bones become weak and thin due to lack of calcium. People with osteoporosis have an increased risk of bone fractures (breaks).  Osteoporosis is often called the “silent disease” because many people do not realize they have it.

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  • Osteomyelitis (Bone Infection)

    Osteomyelitis (an infection of the bone) can be caused by a variety of microbial agents (bacteria, fungus), the most common of which is staphylococcus aureus. This serious infection can occur from a number of sources: • It may enter bone through an injury, such as an open fracture with the bone

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  • Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in one or more joints. Cartilage (the connective tissue found at the end of the bones in the joints) protects and cushions the bones during movement. When cartilage deteriorates or is

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  • Os Trigonum Syndrome

    What is the Os Trigonum?  The os trigonum is an extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus by a fibrous band. The presence of an os trigonum in one or both feet is congenital (present at birth). It becomes evident during adolescence when

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  • Lisfranc Injuries

    The Lisfranc Joint The Lisfranc joint is the point at which the metatarsal bones (long bones that lead up to the toes) and the tarsal bones (bones in the arch) connect. The Lisfranc ligament is a tough band of tissue that joins two of these bones. This is important for maintaining proper alignment and

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  • Joint Swelling in the Foot

    The foot contains 26 bones and more than 30 joints. The body’s natural response to any type of joint injury is to increase blood flow to the affected area. This results in an accumulation of fluid in the tissues in and around the joint, resulting in swelling. Depending on the cause of the injury, joint

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  • Joint Pain in the Foot

    The foot contains 26 bones and more than 30 joints. Many people experience pain involving one or more of these joints. The pain may be accompanied by swelling, tenderness, stiffness, redness, bruising and/or increased warmth over the affected joints. Joint pain may be caused by trauma, infection, inflammation,

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  • Intoeing

    Intoeing (pigeon toes) is a condition in which the feet point inward when walking. It is commonly seen in children and may resolve in very early childhood with no treatment or intervention.  The child should be examined by a foot and ankle surgeon if the intoeing is causing significant tripping, difficulty

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  • Intermetatarsal Neuroma

    What Is a Neuroma? A neuroma is a thickening of nerve tissue that may develop in various parts of the body. The most common neuroma in the foot is a Morton’s neuroma, which occurs between the third and fourth toes. It is sometimes referred to as an intermetatarsal neuroma. “Intermetatarsal” describes

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  • High-Arched Foot

    What is Cavus Foot? Cavus foot is a condition in which the foot has a very high arch. Because of this high arch, an excessive amount of weight is placed on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing. Cavus foot can lead to a variety of signs and symptoms, such as pain and instability. It

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  • Hammertoes

    What Is Hammertoe? Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth, or fifth (little) toes. This abnormal bending can put pressure on the toe when wearing shoes, causing problems to develop.   Hammertoes usually start out as mild deformities and get progressively

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  • Hallux Rigidus

    What Is Hallux Rigidus? Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the joint, and with time it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe.  ‘Hallux” refers to the big toe, while “rigidus” indicates that the toe is rigid and cannot

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  • Haglund's Deformity

    What Is Haglund's Deformity? Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes.  This often leads to painful bursitis, which is an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid-filled sac

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  • Gout

    What Is Gout? Gout is a disorder that results from the build-up of uric acid in the tissues or a joint. It most often affects the joint of the big toe. Causes Gout attacks are caused by deposits of crystallized uric acid in the joint. Uric acid is present in the blood and eliminated in the urine,

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  • Gangrene

    Gangrene occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to tissue, depriving it of oxygen, and thereby causing death and decay of the tissue. The two types of gangrene are wet (caused by bacterial infection) and dry (no infection). Most common causes of gangrene are diabetes, arteriosclerosis, tobacco abuse,

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  • Foot Drop

    "Foot drop” refers to the inability to lift the front part of one’s foot off the ground when walking, resulting in a scuffing or dragging of the foot or lifting the thigh (known as “steppage” gait). It is most often caused by nerve or muscle disorders or damage, or by a central nervous system

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